Name of Department:                    Department of Geog. & Env. Mgt.
Name of Ag.Head Of Deparment:          Dr. E. I. Elenwo
Contact E-mail:                     
Contact Phone Number(s):               07035172824


Phase 1:      (1977 – 1981)

Creation of the Department in 1977, headed by a Director of Study with limited autonomy and skeletal Staff including Mr. K. B. Philip Howard Prof. R. K. Udo, Prof. Barry Floyd and Late Dr. P, U. Onyige (once Nigeria’s Ambassador to Mexico). Within this period the Department turned out its first graduates in 1981 with a B.Sc in Geography.


Phase 2

From 1982, the then School of Social Sciences was reconstituted into the Faculty of Social Sciences comprising four Departments namely Geography, Political Sciences, Economics and Sociology with the Department enjoying greater autonomy and having their own complement of academic and non-academic staff directly responsible to the Head of Department. Staff strength increased from four to eight in 1982 when the Department turned out it second set of Graduates. In 1983 the Department turned out her 3rd set of graduates. The current Acting Head of Department Dr. C. F. Igwe was among this set. Within the same session, the Department started an M.Sc Degree in Geography.


Phase 3       (1983 – 1999)

This period witnessed the over hauling of the Post graduate programme and the addition of the B.Sc. (Geography) as a course in the Continuing Education Programme. Within this period also Senate approved the change of name from Geography to Geography and Environmental Management.


Phase 4       (2000 and beyong)

Within this period, Postgraduate Diploma and M.Sc. Environmental Management was approved by Senate and also the Department went through series of Accreditation exercises which gave rise to an increase in infrastructural facilities i.e. Physical Laboratories, Remote Sensing Laboratories and the establishment of the M.Sc. programme in Disaster Management in March 2009 sponsored by National Emergency Management Authority (NEMA).

Currently, the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) in conjunction with The Nigerian Hydrological Services has established the state of the art Automatic Weather Station which is to be Geo-referenced by the World Meteorological Organisation (W.M.O) and NIMET Headquarters in Abuja.,,,,,,,,,,,

Finally, the history of this Department will certainly be incomplete if we forget to mention her role at the national and professional level. On two occasions (1978 and 2005) the Department successfully and meritoriously hosted the Annual National Conference of the Association of Nigeria Geographers (ANG – the umbrella body of academic and professional geographers in Nigeria). This is an obvious indication that the Department of Geography and Environmental Management has come a long way and currently occupies an enviable position amongst the community of environment-related scholars, disciplines and institutions.



Dr. L. B. Dangana                             –                  1977  –        1982

Dr. E. A. Gyasi                                  –                  1983  –        1984

Dr. A. T. Salau                                  –                  1984  –        1985

Dr. C. V. Izeogu                                –                  1985/86 –    86/87

Dr. P. U. Onyige                                –                  1987  –        1989

Dr. E. A. Nwala                                 –                  1989  –        1990

Dr. (Mrs.) O. A. Salau                       –                  1991/92 –    94/95

Dr. C. U. Oyegun                              –                  1995/96 –    96/97

Dr. A. M. Adeyemo                           –                  1997  –        1999

Prof. W. I. Bell-Gam                         –                  1999  –        2001

Dr. O. S. Akpoghomeh                     –                  2001

Dr. A. M. Adeyemo                           –                  2002  –        2003

Dr. J. E. Umeuduji                            –                  2003  –        2005

Dr. S. B. Arokoyu                             –                  2005  –        2007

Dr. A. A. Obafemi                            –                  2008  –        2010

Dr. C. F. Igwe                                   –                  2010  –        2012

Dr. J. E. Umeuduji                           –                  2012  –        2014

Dr. (Mrs.) G. C. Emenike                 –                  2014 –        2016

Dr. V.E. Weli                                    –                  2016 till date



The Department has always had a mission, which is to contribute meaningfully in the resolution of a variety of issues that are of great importance to man. Our vision is to be relevant to the society. This is why at the first –degree level, we try to design and execute a programme that leads to the grooming of middle – cadre man-power for ministries, industries, oil companies and other environmental establishments.

At the post-graduate level, our programmes are basically designed to groom high-cadre professionalsfor the academia as well as for other associated society and that was what informed our vision of changing our initial departmental name from the Department of Geography to the Department of Geography and Environmental Management. Judging from the level of intellectual stimulation among our academic staff and the number and quality of their publications, one can confidentially say that the Department of Geography and Environmental Management is very alive to her vision and mission.



The broad aim is to produce both theoretically and practically sound Geographers and environmental managers who can make meaningful contributions to spatial development, resolve man-made environmental problems and achieve the sustainable development of our nation.



The philosophy underlying the B.Scprogramme in Geography and Environmental Management is essentially informed by the need to understand the nature, structure, behavour and problems of geographic components on the earth’s surface and to proffer solutions to man-environment interaction problems. The programme focuses on optimal mobilization and utilization of the natural resources of our immediate environment, highlights the environmental impacts of our various developmental endeavours with a view to minimizing the adverse effects and maximizing the gains of modern science and technology. Basically, the idea behind the programme is that of developing a specialized skill that can be used to appreciate the dynamics of spatial phenomena as well as the skill that can be used to effectively manage these phenomena for the benefit of man.



Essentially, the basic objectives of the B.Scprogramme in Geography and Environmental Management among others are:

  1. To give students a sound knowledge of the principles of spatial organization of natural and human phenomena on the earth’s surface.
  2. To make students appreciate the nature and distribution of natural resources and the impact of these on human activities.
  3. To equip students with suitable analytical and technical skills required for tackling the problems of spatial development.
  4. To stimulate an awareness for imbibing the necessary skills for environmental conservations, restoration and sustainability.
  5. To enable students to specialize in areas relevant to national development, particularly environmental management.

To this end, final year students are encouraged to specialized in one of the following areas: they are also expected to apply in their research modern techniques in the application areas…

  1. Rural, Urban and Regional Planning.
  2. Biogeography
  3. Geographic Techniques/Applications – Cartography, Remote Sensing and GIS.
  4. Hydrology, and Watershed Management
  5. Geomorphology
  6. Climatology
  7. Environmental Impact Assessment
  8. Population
  9. Transport Planning and Management.
  10. Cartography



As concern for the quality of human environment, global resource abuse and environmental degradation and imbalance between demand and supply of resources increases, there is need to breed a body of highly skilled and equipped manpower to ameliorate resource use and highlight the environmental impacts of our various developmental endeavours. The demand in government circles, parastatals and the oil industry for specialized courses in urban/rural development and environmental resource management deserves attention. The recent upsurge of public and private interest in issues related to the environment and the need to strike a balance between socio-economic development and sustainable environmental resource utilization have further heightened the need for his programme. We also want to make our progoramme relevant to the Niger Delta Region.



Entry into the degree programme will normally be through the University Matriculation Examination. Candidates selected on the basis of this examination will also be required to have credit in five (5) subjects including English Language, Geography and others from the Arts, Science or Social Sciences subjects in the West African School Certificate Examination or the General Certificate of Education or NECO at ordinary level. At least a pass in Mathematics is required.



The standard course load in the department is five courses per semester, with a total of fifteen (15) units. In addition to the standard course load which is mandatory, students may take elective courses. The extra courses will be graded and the grades will count towards the candidate’s degree. The minimum course load for graduation is 120 credit units while the maximum is 138 credit units.



To obtain a bachelor of science degree from the Faculty of Social Sciences, a student must:

  1. Complete an approved programme of study consisting of a total course load of not less than 48 courses distributed as follows:
  1. Compulsory university courses: 4 General Studies courses, prescribed for all the students in the University. A compulsory community service course is also recommended for all the students in the University.
  2. Compulsory Faculty foundation courses: foundation courses are prescribed for the Faculty in the 1st and 2nd years.
  3. Major Departmental courses: these are the courses which all Geography and Environmental Management majors must take, especially in the second, third and fourth years.
  4. Electives: 2 elective courses: one each in the first and second semesters of year two.
  1. Participate in 3 – 6 months industrial training during the second semester of year 3.
  2. Achieve an overall cumulative grade point average (CGPA) not below 1.00 at the end of every academic year.
  3. Satisfy all financial obligations to the University, as well as other requirements relating to attendance and character, as may be prescribed by Senate and
  4. Be formally recommended by the board of studies of the faculty for the award of a degree.


Courses will be evaluated by continuous/course assessment (CA) as well as end of semester examinations.



The following grading system shall be used for all students in the department.

Table 1: Grading System

70% above A 5.0 Very good
60 – 69% B 4.0 Good
50 – 59% C 3.0 Average
45 – 49% D 2.0 Satisfactory
40 – 44% E 1.0 Weak
0 – 39% F 0.0 Very weak


Table 2: Classification of Degree

Grade/Class CGPA
1ST 4.50 – 50
21 3.50   –  4.49
22 2.40  –  3.49
3rd 1.50  –  2.39
Pass 1.00  – 1.49
Fall 0.00   –  0.99

6.0     Programme Structure

Year One (100 Level)

First Semester

GES  103.1          Nigerian People and Culture (2 units)

GES 104.1           History and philosophy of Science (2 units)

ECO 102.1           Principles of Economics (3 units)

SOC 102.1           Introduction to Sociology (3 units)

GEM 101.1          Introduction to Physical & Environmental Studies (2 units)

GEM 102.1          Introduction to Practical Geography (2 units)

GEM103.1           Elementary Surveying (2 units)

GEM104.1           Port Harcourt Region  (2 units)


Second Semester

GES100.2            Communication Skills in English (4 units)

GES102.2            Logic and Philosophy (2 units)

POL 102.2            Political Analysis (3 units)

GEM105.2           Introduction to Human Geography (2 units)

GEM106.2           The human environment (2 units)

GEM107.2           Elementary Statistics for geographers (3 units)

Gem108.2            Introduction to Environmental Management (2 units)

Total credit units          18



First Semester

GES101.1            Computer Appreciation (2 units)

FSC 2C1.1            Community Service (1 unit)

GEM201.1           Spatial Organization of Society (3 units)

GEM202.1           Hydrology (3 units)

GEM203.1           Climatology (3 units)

GEM204.1           Cartography (3 units)

One elective from outside the Faculty (3 units)

Total credit units  19


Second Semester

ECO 203.2           Economic History (3 units)

CSC 182.2           Application of Computer (3 units)

GEM206.2           Advanced Quantitative Techniques

GEM208.2           Population Geography (3 units)

GEM207.2           Geographic Thought and Theory (3 units)

GEM209.2           Geomorphology (3 units)

GEM210.2           Field Course (1 unit)

Total credit units 18



First Semester

GEM301.1           Geo-Environmental Research Methods (3 units)

GEM302.1           Rural and Urban Geography (3 units)

GEM303.1           Economic Geography (3 units)

GEM304.1           Biogeography (3 units)

GEM305.1           Transport Geography (3 units)

Gem306.1            Geographic Information System (3 units)

GEM307.1           Geography of Africa with special Emphasis on West Africa (3 units)

Total credit units 21


Second Semester

Gem308.2            Applied Geography – Industrial Work Experience – SIWES (9 units)

Total credit units          9



First Semester

GEM401.1           Systematic Geography of Nigeria (3 units)

GEM402.1           Contemporary Philosophy & Methodology of Geography (3 units)

GEM403.1           Remote Sensing (3 units)

GEM404.1           Environmental Resource Management (3 units)

GEM405.1           Industrial Geography (3 units)


Select any one course

GEM406.1           Applied Climatology (3 units)

GEM407.1           Urban Planning: Theory & Practice (3 units)

GEM408.1           Watershed Management (3 units)

Total Credit Units         18


Second Semester

GEM409.2           Research Project (6 units)

GEM410.2           Developed and Developing World (3 units)

GEM 411.2          Regional Development Planning (3 units)

GEM412.2           Resource Evaluation &Environmental Impact Studies ( units)

Select any one Course

GEM413.2           Environmental Economics & Resource Analysis (2 units)

GEM414.2           Bio-Diversity & Ecosystem Management (2 units)

GEM415.2           Advanced Cartographic Methods (2 units)

Total Credit Units                  17

Cumulative total credit units           =       138


7.0     Course Description

Year one (100 level)


  1. Economic Landscape of Nigeria
  2. Sociological Landscape
  3. Environmental Issue
  4. Political Landscape of Nigeria Including the Nigeria Civil War.


Man, his origin and nature: man and his cosmic environment, scientific, methodology, science and technology in the society and in the service of man; renewable and non-renewable resource; man and his energy resource. Environmental effect of chemical, plastics, textiles wastes and other materials; chemical and radio chemical hazards. Introduction to various areas of science and technology.


Introduction to the elements of the economy and the basic concepts of economic analysis. The course will discuss the two main contemporary types of economic systems (socialist and capitalist) as well as selected problems of economic policy and planning for  development.


The study of the social system and its relationship to other systems particularly the political and economic systems. Attempt to understand how social systems evolve, differentiate or disintegrate. Introduction to basic concepts of sociological analysis, such as role, social structure, function, conflict, class consensus, power, value, authority and culture.


The composition andstructure of the lithosphere and hydrosphere. The earth’s radiation, atmosphere and oceanic circulation system. Introduction to recycling of matter and energy in ecosystem. Theories of man/environment relationship. Natural processes and environmental relationship. Natural processes and environmental disequilibrium/hazards. Current environmental problems such as air pollution, earthquakes, floods, desertification, erosion, drought and hurricane. The depth and breath of the nature, please of occurrence, effects, causes and methods of prevention of each natural man-induced hazard should be treated.


Map reading: representation of relief and recognition of relief forms, analysis and interpretation of cultural features on maps, scales, enlargement and reduction. Graphic and map presentation of geographic data; isoline maps; choropleth maps dot maps flow maps etc.

GEM 103.1          –        ELEMENTARY SURVEYING

Conceptual definition and principles of surveying. Basic techniques of surveying and the use of basic old and modern instrument for surveying – Large scale trilateration surveys with chains, tapes, abney level clinometers, prismatic compose etc. Construction and use of levels and staves, sextant, the plane tables, alidade, plotting grids. Introduction to basic principles of photogrametry, theodolite, total station, and GPS surveys etc. orientation and revision of small scale maps. The course involves practical field exposure of students to the use of surveying instrument.


Port Harcourt in its regional setting, the physical geography of Port Harcourt including its relief, drainage, soils and climates, the human geography of the region including transport, industries, urbanization, trade, residential neighbourhoods, infrastructure amenities and other public facilities.


A brief survey of the main branches of philosophy, symbolic logic. Special symbols in symbolic logical conjunction, negation, affirmation, disjunction, equivalence and conditional statements. Laws of thought. The method of deduction using rules of thought. The method of deduction using rules of inference and bio-conditionals. Qualification theory.


Effective communication and writing in English, language skills, writing of eassays, answers, instruction on lexis, sentence construction. Outline and paragraphs. Collection and organization of materials and logical presentation. Punctuation and logical presentation of papers. Use of library, phonetics, art of public speaking and oral communication.


Introduction to the basic concepts of political science, and selected approaches to the study of the political system. The course also deals with issues of methodology and techniques, and the problems and prospects of the comparative study  of political systems.


The scope of human geography and its relationship to physical geography. World population; its distribution and patterns of growth/demographic characteristics of selected populations. Human settlements, evolution; patterns and functions interrelationships between urban and rural settlements. Impact of human activities on the environment at varying levels of technology and population densities. The role of movement flows of people energy and ideas.

GEM 106.2          –        THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

The course treats the under listed topics. They include:

  1. Basic theories of man/environment interaction; determinism, possibilism, and sustainable ethics.
  2. Influence/impact of man on land forms, climate, bio-diversity and nature in general.
  3. Basic elements and concepts in spatial organization, distiance and spatial behavour as well as the consequences of such behavours in terms of resource depletion, pollution and other man-induced environmental hazards.
  4. Environmental challenges and man’s responses; relationship between resources, location of human activities, growth and development, settlements and socio-economic activities; rural-urban settlements, rural market system, industrial activities, agriculture, trade, mining activities etc.
  5. Transportation systems and information flows as they affect development, spatial diffusion of socio-economic and political activities and planning.


The place of statistics in research. Review of algebraic operations. Subscriptions and summations. Data description and characteristics. Frequency distributions and graphic presentation. Measures of central tendency and variability. Methods of sampling.


The course embraces the following: meaning of, and rationale for environmental management; the nature of the environment and environmental resources; human impact on resources and ecosystems; sustainable developing and utilization of environmental resources; concept like conservation, carrying capacity, perception, impact and risk assessment, carrying capacity, perception, and audition; introduction to ISO 14000 standards; EMPs; and environmental policies and laws.


History of computers. Generalizations and classification of computers. IPO model of a computer. Components of a computer system. Hardware and software and its application. Programming language, organization of data. Data computer techniques. Introduction to computer networks. Use of the keyboard as an input device. DOS, windows, world processing, spread sheet. Application of computers in medicine, social sciences, humanities, education and management sciences.


The community service course entails going out to community to work, solving specific problems that ideally require manual labour. It is not intended to be a field application of theory of a concession to the dignity of labour. The point of this course is that it is a profound learning experience, which links academic pursuit to social goals and objectives. Students participate in the choice and development of projects for this course.


Some basic concepts of spatial organization; principles of classification of geographical phenomena; growth and spatial distribution of population; production systems, typology and distribution, location, spacing and growth of settlements; movements over space and transport networks. Land-use typology, pattern and interaction.

GEM 202.1          –        HYDROLOGY

Scope and branches of hydrology. The hydrological cycle. Hydro-meteorological parameters. Elements of surface hydrology. Through flow and overland flow models, discharge hydrograph. Sub-surface water, artesian system. Water resource inventory and artesian system, water resource inventory and development of water resource schemes.

GEM 203.1          –        CLIMATOLOGY

The general circulation of the atmospheric scale and laws of motion. Forces that drive the atmosphere. Major features and models of the circulation. Weather producing systems air masses and fronts, frontal and non-frontal depressions; tropical systems. Climatic classification and global systems of climate. Man’s influence on the atmosphere.

GEM 204.1          –        INTRODUCTORY CARTOGRAPHY

History and renaissance in cartography and map making. Techniques of map making. Classification and types, functions and uses of maps. Design and compilation of thematic maps. Nature of cartographic data. Compilation and statistical mapping; choropleths, isopleths, flow maps, pie graphs, bar graphs etc. map projection and lettering techniques. Contemporary application and importance of cartography.

GEM 205.1          –        FIELD COURSE

Purpose of field work, classification of field work. Types and identification of field work problem. Field work planning-logistics and materials, safety tips. Field techniques – observation, measurement, field sketching, photography, sketch mapping and transect making. Preparation of field work design and report. The course will also involve 5 – 10 days intensive field studies designed to illustrate the application of the above concepts to topical geographical and environmental management issues.


Description and analysis of the background, origins and character of industrialization of Europe. America and other selected areas of the world. The course will include topics such as the agriculture revolution, the role of technology, economic change, the role of trade, institutional and structural change and the social and demographic aspects of industrialization.


Introduction to basic programming data types constant and variables. Statement types; assignment statement, input-output statements, control statement.


Parametric and non-parametric tests. Regression, correlation and time series analysis. Probability and non-probability sampling techniques, sources of error in data collection. Instrumentation and measurement, questionnaire and intervention designs.


History of geographic thought in relation to the history of science. The role of theory in sciences and geography. Method in natural and social science. Nature of problems in geographic research.

GEM 208.2          –        POPULATION GEOGRAPHY

Examination of population data sources. Vital statistics censuses and sample survey. Population in history including patterns. Spatial distribution of world population structure fertility, mortality and migration. The world population problem; responses to the world population.

GEM 209.2          –        GEOMORPHOLOGY

The meaning and scope of geomorphology. Rock cycle and geomorphic processes. Weathering types and characteristics, landforms traceable to weathering. History and scope of soil geography. Erosion and land degradation. Flood plain management. Land reclamation.




The nature of environmental data, types and sources of data. Data collection and classification; sampling techniques research design, data analysis, report writing, fieldwork and analysis of data collected in the field. This course includes one week of fieldwork.


Principles of human settlement. The structure of space distance functions and land use. Rural central places and peasant marketing. Rural transformation, land reforms and effects of improved transport. Rural development strategies. History of urbanization, the pre-industrial and the modern city. The central place theory, city hinterland, and systems of cities. The analysis of urban economic activities, problems of urbanization.

GEM 303.1          –        ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY

Some basic economic principles and concepts; supply and demand, economics of scale, economic rent, comparative advantage and factors of production. Patterns of world economic development. Types of economic systems. Components of an economy, spatial economic theories and production systems, agricultural systems and the role of agriculture in the world economy. World economic activities; fishing, lumbering, mining and manufacturing, transportation, commerce and international trade.

GEM 304.1          –        BIO-GEOGRAPHY

Vegetation types. Factors affecting flora and fauna distribution at various scales. The concept of the eco-system. The structure and functioning of terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems. Vegetation changes through time; adaptation, succession, and climax. Human impacts on eco-systems, principles of eco-system, conservation and management. Techniques in bio-geography.


The course will introduce students to the subject of transportation in four main areas. These are the general principles and modes of transport, transport systems on a regional basis, the problems of urban and rural transport and finally the role of transport in regional development planning. With emphasis on such areas as the principal characteristics and organizations of maritime as well as air transport, attempts would be made to treat the problems and prospects of transport, development in the developing countries.


Methods of storing geographic data charts and diagrams of various sorts, air-photo, satellite images etc. introduction to computers application of storing geographic data-relevant types of hard wares and software. The use of scanning technology to store and preserve drawings and maps on digital form. Methods and tools necessary to convert scanned images into vector format. Image processing. The application of GIS and conservation, transportation planning and management and various of other aspects of spatial policy decision making.



The course is expected to expose the third year students to several fields of endeavour where the application of Geography and Environmental Management is indispensable in both the public and private establishments. For the entire period of this industrial experience, the students will be closely supervised and monitored. At the end of the exercise a technical report is written and presented as a seminar. A cumulative grade to be scored will be based on practical, technical reports and seminar presentation.




A thematic approach to the geography of Nigeria focusing on a range of physical and human phenomena; spatial patterns; ecological zones; growth and distribution of population; natural resources base; agricultural production and marketing system; industrialization; transport; internal and external exchange, concepts and models; river basins; city and community regions, migration flows, urban systems; modernization; development strategies.


Current methodology of geographical research including recent paradigm shifts within geography and scientific approach to geographic research; quantization, classification, theories and models, systems analysis and modes of explanation in geography. The future of geography.


GEM 403.1          REMOTE SENSING

Basic concepts, classification and purpose of Remote sensing. Principles of remote sensing systems; the electromagnetic spectrum. Imaging systems and their capabilities. Remote sensing platforms. Types and use of air photos, instrument and techniques of air photo interpretation. Comparison of maps and air photos. Contemporary application of remote sensing for surveys; population census; environmental management, monitoring of land use/land cover changes, population, and impacts etc.


Concepts and practices of applied physical geography systems of land classification and evaluation with special reference to integrated surveys. Compilation of land and water resource maps. Utilization of strategic minerals for national development. Petroleum, solid minerals, forestry, wildlife. Environmental planning policies and processes.


Industrial location theories and trends. Factors of industrial location. Industrial location and time dimension; plant relocation, industrial inertia, and evolution of industrial patterns. Industrial location and regional development. Environmental impact of industrial location and activities. Urban and regional industrial planning with special reference to Nigeria. Central place theory, management of public service centres.


Application of climatology knowledge in earth and biological sciences; commerce and industry; economic climatology, the management of climatic resources and weather control, introduction to meteorology.


This course focuses on the fundamental aims and objectives, scope and contents as well as theory and practice of urban and regional (country/rural) planning discipline. It emphasized planning as a decision making process, the preparation of comprehensive community development plans as policy documents, the evolution of contemporary urban planning ideas and concepts and their significance and relevance to urban and rural planning in the Nigeria context; the theory and practice of physical planning in developing countries; plan implementation.


The role of water in landform evolution, the river basin, form and processes, dynamics of fluvial processes and the relationship between form and processes, dynamics of the urbanization of river catchments, land use planning and budgeting reclamation studies; erosion control and management.


The objective is to train students in the collection and analysis of data and the write up of results in a meaningful form. Students are expected to demonstrate knowledge of relevant current literature and ability to present information suitably. Approximately 10,000 word dissertation and defended by each student.


Location of developed and developing world, production systems in developed and developing countries. Distribution of income and standard of living. The historical evolution of developed economies. The population issues, international trade and economic order, industrial regions of Europe and America. Location of developing world. The concept of development and attributes of development. Factors of developed and under-development economics. Poverty and income distribution, economic activities.


Concepts and dimensions of planning and regions, regional inequality and the development processes, regional and local planning. Regional imbalances in resource distribution and allocation. Problem of regions identification and planning policies. Problems of planning data and politics of resource distribution in space. Regional planning theories and strategies. Regional planning in Nigeria and planning in contemporary world.


Concepts of resource perception, appraisal, classification, capability assessment and allocation; principles of conservation and carrying capacity. The principles, procedures, processes and practice in environmental impact assessment involving nature, purpose, issues, impact description, identification, prediction, evaluation mitigation, monitoring and auditing.


Environment, economics, development and ethical issues; sustainable development and measurements; resource degradation, causes and policy responses involving market and policy failures and rapid population growth. Principles of environmental account, valuation, assessment and planning strategies, international environmental issues-trade. Tran frontier pollution and the management of global common resources. Evaluating environmental damage and benefits.


Inventory of biological resources and their spatial distribution. Concepts of bio-diversity bio-degradation and bio-remediation. Forest biomes and their structure. Utilization, monitoring and management of forest, wetlands and other ecosystems and ecological resources. Wildlife and protected area management. Global biodiversity strategies and policies.


Scope and limitations of visual presentation of statistics. Sources and manipulation of geographic data for visual presentation; criteria of significance and choice of technique. Critical review of diagrammatic techniques, cartographic design and productions; scale and error factors in map design. The use of computer/digital technology, mechanical, optical and photographic aids in cartography and map productions. Contemporary management of cartography to environmental management. The cartography profession.




The statement of academic policies was issued first in 1977. It was revised in 1983 to reflect the reorganization from a school to a Faculty Department System and in 1990 reflect changes in line with the NUC minimum academic standards. The revision reflects change made by Senate in 1995.


  2. The academic objectives of the University of Port Harcourt.  Shall be:


To contribute to national development, self-reliance and unity through the advancement and propagation of knowledge and to use such knowledge for service to the community and to humanity.

To this end:

  1. Degree programmes shall be provided with the objectives of producing persons who are well grounded in contemporary culture, have sound knowledge of at least one branch of learning, and are intellectually and morally well equipped to make an effective contribution to national development, self-reliance and unity.
  2. Research facilities shall be provided for staff and students and students to undertake research relevantto the development of Nigeria.
  3. Continuing education programme shall be provided for the benefit of persons in the various sectors of the economy and in the public service, with a view to increasing their efficiency and productivity through knowledge of new developments relating to their work.
  4. Programems shall be provided to assist the local community to benefit from facilities provided by the institution.


    1. The university shall run degree programme of 4 years for its Bachelor’s degree in the Humanities, social sciences, science, Education, and Management science and 5 years in engineering. 4 and 6 years in Health sciences. The basic entrance requirement is the senior secondary school certificate/west African school certificate/general certificate of education ‘o’ level or equivalent with credits in five subjects, obtained at not more than two sittings. There shall nonnarly be no direct entry into the second year of the degree programme. The degree programme shall have the following provisions.
      1. General Studies Courses

These are courses at appropriate levels of the degree propramme, the purpose of which shall be to improve the basic intellectual and communications skills of the students and to promote a continuous awareness and understanding of contemporary society as well as the historical and cultural origins of the peoples of Nigeria.

  1. Foundation Courses

A common core of course in the same faculty from which all students shall take an approved selection in at least the first year, the purpose of which shall be to provide a sound background in general principles and methodology relating to the disciplines in the faculty.

  1. Community Service Course.

This is a filed project towards services to the community or to the Univeristy and is an integral part of all degree programs. The objective of the project is to involve both staff and students in a practical way with some of the problems of society as well as with efforts to provide solutions to them, and to inculcate and develop in both staff and student a consciousness of their responsibilities to society and the satisfaction of rendering services to others. The projects, which are practical in nature require the application of some of the skills being acquired in the degree programme to service to the community, and generally involve manual work. They are credit-earning and are an essential requirement in all degree programme.

  1. Major Courses

These are courses in the students major field of interest. These shall begin as a limited number of major courses in the first two years, and occupy most of the student’s time in subsequent years.

  1. Elective Courses

Elective courses offer some opportunities to students to broaden their interest, either within or outside their major discipline. Subject to the advice of their academic adviser, students are encouraged to follow their personal interest in electives.

  1. Scientific Training

In the training of scientists, the programme give adequate emphasis to the practical, social and cultural implications of scientific knowledge and seek to correct some of the disabilities inherent in scientific education in a society that is still largely technologically backward and superstitious. This shall be done even if it requires departure from some of the traditional methods of European and American scientific education. To achieve these objectives the programme includes training in themechanical skills that are usually taken in the mechanical skills that are usually taken for granted in technologically more advanced scientist but are usually lacking in our students, and are very vital for scientific innovation and advancement.

2.3     Framework for Degree Structure

The general framework for the degree structure is as follows:


General studies courses foundations courses major courses.

General studies courses foundations courses major courses


2nd Year

General studies courses (where applicable) foundation courses major courses community service courses elective courses.


3rd Year

General studies courses (where application) major courses elective courses industrial training teaching practice/year abroad (where applicable).


4th Year

General studies courses (where applicable) major course.


5th Year

General studies (where applicable) major courses, elective courses (where applicable) projects (where applicable).


6th Year

Major course elective courses (where applicable) seminar courses (where applicable) project (where applicable).



3.1     University Requirements

1.       Five credits in the Senior Secondary Certificate or equivalent, including English, obtained in not more than two sittings.

2.       A score in JAMB  not below the cut-off point  for the particular department in the year in question.

3.2     Department Requirements

In addition to meeting the basic admission requirements of the University, potential students are also required to fulfill the requirements of their respective departments.

3.3     Transfer and Change of Programme

For conditions on transfer or change of programme, please sections see 10 – 11.



4.1     For purposes of teaching and examination, the academic year is divided into two semesters, each of approximately sixteen weeks of teaching.

4.2     Instruction shall be by courses and every proposed course with an outline of contents must be presented to Senate for approval.

4.3     The unit of credit for a course is the credit unit, one credit unit being when a class meets for one hour every week for one semester in a lecture  or tutorial, or for 3 hours every week in practical in the laboratory, workshop or field.

4.4     Each course carries 1 to 6 credit units and its duration is one semester.

4.5     The normal course load for a full-time students is 15 to 21 credit units per semester. No student is permitted to register for less than 15 or more than 21 credit units in any semester. This does not apply to students on fieldwork/industrial attachment/teaching practice on vacation periods.

4.5     The normal course load for a full-time students is 15 to 21 credit units per semester. No student is permitted to register for less than 15 or more than 21 credit units in any semester. This does not apply to students on fieldwork/industrial attachment/teaching practice on vacation periods.

4.6     Prerequisites and concurrent requirement for courses may be waived at the discretion of the faculty teachingthe course for which they are prescribed upon the recommendation of department of offering the course.

4.7     Every course shall be continuously assessed, and examined at the end of the semester in which it is given.

Reseat examination have no place in the course credit system and are not permitted.



5.1     Programme

5.1.1  To obtain a degree in the University of Port Harcourt, students must complete the approved programme of study in their Department and all courses which the programme specifies must be passed. All students are urged to familiarize themselves with the specific requirements for a Bachelor’s degree in their Department, as specified in the current brochure for the Faculty or Department.

5.1.2  It is the responsibility of each Faculty and Department to ensure that copies of a brochure with correct details of all current programmes are available to each set of incoming students.

5.2     Students will graduate on the programme which was in effect in their Department at the time they were admittedinto the Department.

5.3     The pass mark for undergraduate course is 40% except for the College of Health sciences where it is 50%.

5.4     Each  Faculty and Department will specify its own minimum requirement for the awardof its degree, subject to a minimum of 120 credit units degree, subject to a minimum of 120 credit units and a maximum of 148 credit units for a 4 year programme or a minimum of 150 credit units and a maximum of 210 credit units for a 5 year programme. A well balanced programe should require between 120 and 148 credit units for a 4-year programme and between 150 and 210 credit units for a 5 year programme to be taken.

5.5     Each Faculty and Department must specify the minimum number of units which must be passed in order to graduate.

5.6     All registered courses other than audited courses must be passed.

5.7     When re-registering failed courses, students must not exceed the maximum number of 24 credit units for one semester. Any courses which would cause the maximum to be exceeded must be deferred to the following academic year.

5.8     Grade points earned at all attempts at a particular course count towards the CGPA.

5.10   Students are not allowed to repeat a course which they have passed.

5.10   The various kinds of courses available are as follows:

5.10.1         General Studies Courses:

General studies courses are university-wide and the appropriate combination of courses specified by the students faculty and department must be passed.

5.10.2         Foundation Courses

Various foundation (or faculty-wide) courses for the first two years study are prescribed by each Faculty. Departments specify the particular foundation courses which their students must take.


5.10.3         Major Discipline Courses

Courses in the major discipline occupy most of the curriculum in the third and subsequent years of the regular four-year structure. All students are advised to be acquainted with the requirements of their Faculty and Department.

5.10.4                   Community Service Course

One community service course must be passed.


5.10.5         Elective Course

Every programme must include some provision for elective courses.



6.1     Diploma, certificate and basic studies programme have their own regulations which must be sought in the appropriate brochure.



7.1     Every student is attached to an Academic Adviser who is a member of the academic staff and who will advice him/her on academic affairs as well as on personal matters. Academic advisers are expected to follow their students’ academic progress and provide counseling to them.

7.2     It is the duty of the Head of Department to assign an academic adviser to each student at the beginning of each session.

7.3     Academic advisers should give clear information on the notice-boards about appropriate times and places at which  they will be available to students who wish to consult them.



8.1     The period for normal registration is the first week of each academic year. Excluding the orientation week.

8.2     The period for late registration is the second week of the first semester of the academic year. Late registration will attract surcharge penalty.

8.3     Course registration is the responsibility of the student’s parent Department. The Head of Department signs for all the courses registered.

8.4     In registering students, the parent Department should ensure that students re-register for all previously failed courses in which the programme requires a pass, and meet the prescribed requirements for each course registered; furthermore, that the total credit units registered are not less than 15 nor more than 24 per semester (cf 4.5 and 5.7).

8.5     Any registration completed after the time specified will be null and void and will not be credited to the student even when he/she has taken and passed an examination in the course.

8.6     Students are not allowed to sit for examinations in courses for which they have not previously registered. Such actions are fraudulent and culprits will be appropriately disciplined.

8.7     Any genuine request for late registration must be mad in writing to the Head of Department, and a late registration fee, whose amount is reviewed each year in line with the cost of living, must be paid to the Bursar. Forms for late registration will be given out only when the appropriate receipts are documented in the form.

8.8     A list of students registered for each course should be kept (see appendix 1). This list should be displayed for one week immediately after the close of registration for necessary corrections.

8.9     The parent faculty and the parent Department retain one copy each of this list and forward three copies to the teaching faculty to be distributed as follows: one to the faculty, one to the department and one to the course lecturer. This list becomes the authentic register for the course examination.

8.10   For all students, the following forms are returned to the academic office: form MIS-01 (SIF) for fresh students  MIS-02 (course registration form) and MIS-04 (fee form).

8.11   Students should be encouraged to join their professional associations. But the dues for such associations should not be tied to registrations forms.

8.12   Application for adding or dropping a course must be made on the prescribed ADD/DROP form and certified by the registrar after obtaining the approval of the Heads of Departments concerned not later than four weeks before the examination in each semester. Any change of course made by altering the registration form will be null and void.



9.1     Students may attend a course outside their prescribed programme. The course shall be recorded in their transcript only if they had registered for it with the approvalof the Head of their Department and the Dean of their Faculty and taken the prescribed examination. An audited course shall not beused in calculating the CGPA.


10.     Change of Degree Programme

10.1   A student who has been admitted to a degree programme on satisfying the minimum requirements for entry into the University as well as course requirements for the Faculty and Department shall not normally be allowed to change until he/she has completed the first academic year in the degree programme. A student awarded a scholarship in a ‘discipline different from that  for which he/she is admitted shall be allowed to change Faculty or Department to that in which the programe specified by the scholarship award is available, provided that he/she meets the requirements of the Faculty or Department to which a change is desired.


10.2   Application to change Faculty shall normally be made by the student concerned through the Head of the present Department and Faculty, who recommends to Faculty Board on a prescribed form (in quintuplicate) obtained from tile faculty. Duly completed copies of the change of programme form shall be forwarded to the committee of provost and deans for approval and to the registrar for certification. Thereafter, the registrar shall retain a copy and forward a copy each to the two heads, the respective deans and the student concerned. Interfaculty transfer should be done by the faculty board and the committee of provost and deans should be informed.


10.3   To qualify for consideration to transfer to the professional programme in medicine, engineering and management sciences a student shall be required to obtain a cap A points or above at the time of application.



11.1 A student from another University may seek a transfer to any of the programmes of the University of Port Harcourt. Such applicants must write enclosing relevant credentials and transcripts of academic record, to th registrar who shall normally refer the request to the appropriate Head of Department with the applicant’s official transcript. The Head of Department after considering the application shall make an appropriate recommendation through the Dean to the committee of provost and deans. The decision of the committee of provost and deans shall be final. All such application must be processed before the beginning of the academic year.

11.2   All applicants for inter-University transfer shall be required to be in good standing in their previous university.

11.3   A student who has been expelled or suspended from any university for acts of misconduct shall be eligible for transfer to the University of Port Harcourt.

11.4   The residence requirement shall be a minimum of two years.


12      TIME TABLE

12.1   The lecture timetable should be released at least two weeks before the first day of lectures.

12.2   Faculty Officers are required to collate information on the number of students registered for each course in their faculty at the close of registration and forward it to the timetable committee not later than three weeks after the close of registration.

12.3   The examination timetable should be released at least three weeks before the scheduled date of the start of examinations.

12.4   Examinations involving large classes should be conducted in the first week of examinations. At the time of such examination no othe examination should be scheduled. So as to have enough space and enable enough invigilators to be available large classes are defined as Univeristy wide or faculty wide courses.

12.5   Scheduled times and dates  for examinations must be adhered to. If it is found necessary to re-schedule examination, this must be with the permission of the chairman. Time table committee.

12.6   Because of the constraints of space examinations are currently (1997) scheduled to last for three weeks. As soon as adequate classroom space is available this shouldbe reducedto two weeks.


13.     TEACHING

13.1   Because of the present lack of teaching space, the existing practice of teaching large classes in a single group may be maintained until the situation improves, but an effective public address system and adequate teaching aids/assistants must be provide for such classes.

13.2   The co-ordination of the teaching of Facultyand university-widecourses involving freshmen should be restricted to senior academic staff not below the rank of senior lecturer.

13.3   Heads of Departments should ensure that lecturers take their teaching assignment seriously, in particular course outlines based on the approved course description must be made available to students free of charge at thecommencement of lectures.

13.4   Continuous assessment normally constitutes 30% of the marks for the course, but may be up to 60% for courses of a practical nature. Continuous assessment must be administered during the teaching period and not as a test immediately preceding the examination nor as an extra question on the examination paper.


14.1   The following system of grade points shall be used for all faculties.

70% and above



















14.2   Students are obliged to sit for examinations in all registered courses. Any student who fails to sit for a course examination without satisfactory reason earns the grade of ‘F’.



15.1   Every course carries a fixed number, of credit units (CU), one credit unit being when a class meets for one hour every week for one semester or three hours every week in the laboratory, workshop or field.


15.2   Quality points (Q.P) are derived by multiplying the credit units for the course by the grade points earned by the students: e.g. in a course with 3 credit units in which a student earned a B with 4 grade points, the quality points are 3 x 4 = 12.

15.3   Grade Point Average (GPA) is derived by diving the quality points for the semester by the credit units for the semester: e.g. in a semester where the student earned 56 quality points for 18 credit units the GPA is 56/18 = 3.11.

15.4   Cumulative Grade Point average (CGPA) is derived by adding the total quality points (TQP) to date: e.g. if the TQP are 228 and the TCU are 68, then the CGPA is 228/68 = 3.35.


15.5   Detailed example of how to calculate GPA and CGPA.



Course Credit Unit Letter Grade Grade Points Quality Points Grade Point average (GPA) Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)






























QP = 66

CU = 17

GPA = 66/7


TQP = 66

TCU = 17

CGPA = 66/17


TOTAL 17 66



Course Credit Unit Letter Grade Grade Points Quality Points Grade Point average (GPA) Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)

























QP = 48

CU = 20

GPA = 48/20


TQP = 114

TCU = 37

CGPA = 114/37


TOTAL 20 48



Course Credit Unit Letter Grade Grade Points Quality Points Grade Point average (GPA) Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)


























QP = 61

CU = 18

GPA = 61/18


TQP = 175

TCU = 55

CGPA = 175/55


TOTAL 18 61



Course Credit Unit Letter Grade Grade Points Quality Points Grade Point average (GPA) Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)






























QP = 59

CU = 20

GPA = 59/20


TQP = 66

TCU = 17

CGPA = 234/75


TOTAL 20 59


Observe how the course GEM 109 was failed in year 1, semester 2, and computer with F = 0 year 1. It was then re-registered and computed with D = 2 in year II, semester 2. The old grade is not replaced by the new one.


15.6   Grades obtained in all approved courses of a student’s prescribed programme, excluding audited courses, shall be used to compute the GPA.


15.7   Where a student has registered more than the allowed number of free elective courses, only the grades obtained in the allowed number of elective courses chosen in the order of registration will be used in computing the CGPA. Other elective course will be treated as audited courses and will not be used in calculating the CGPA.


15.8   Where a student was registered for a course but the result is unavailable, due to no fault of the student, no result will be recorded for that course and the student will re-register for it in the next academic year.


15.9   Where a student transfer from one faculty to another, only the grades obtained in the  new prescribed programme of study will be used to compute the CGPA. Courses which were completed before the change of programme and which are not part of the new prescribed programme will be treated as audited courses.



16.1   Continuation Requirement

The continuation requirement in the University is a CGPA of 1.00 at the end of every academic year.


16.2   Probation

Probation is a status granted to a student whose academic performance fails below an acceptable standard. A student whose cumulative grade point average is below 1.00 at the end of a particular year of study earns a period of probation for one academic session.


16.3   Limitation of Registration

Students on probation may not register for more than 1.8 units per semester. The purpose of the restriction is to give the students a chance to concentrate on improving their performance and thus raising their CGPA.


16.4   Warning of Danger of Probation

Students should be warned by their department if at the end of any semester their GPA fails below 1.00.


16.5   Repeating Failed Course Unit(s)

Subject to the conditions for withdrawal and probation, a student must repeat the failed course units) 4 the next available opportunity, provided that the total number of credit units carried during that semester does not exceed 24, and the grade points earned at all attempts shall count towards the CGPA.


16.6   Temporary Withdrawal From Study

A student may apply for temporary withdrawal from study for a period of one year which may be renewal up to a maximum of 2 year.


16.7   Withdrawal

A student whose cumulative grade point average is below 1.00 at the end of one year’s probation shall be required to withdrawal from the programme.


16.8   Duration of Degree Programmes

A student who, after the maximum length of time allowed for a degree programme, has not obtained a degree, shall be asked to withdraw from the programme. The maximum length of time that a student shall be permitted to spend on a standard 4 year programme shall be 6 years, and on a 5 year programme shall be 7 years. This regulation does not apply to the N4BBS programme, which has its own requirements. In part-timeprogramme, the appropriate ratio should apply.



17.1   the degree shall be awarded with 1st, 2nd upper, 2nd lower, or 3rd class honours, or as a pass degree. The cumulative grade point averages for these classes shall be:


Class of degree Cumulative grade point average
1st class 4.50 – 5.0
2nd class upper 3.50 – 4.49
2nd class lower 2.40-3.49
3rd class 1.50 – 2.39
Pass 1.00 – 1.49

* old and new students are as defined in section 14.1



18.1   Examiners should ensure that the question papers are prepared under conditions of maximum security and are ready in time. For all examinations, well packeaged question papers must be accompanied by a list of supervisors/invigilators and the relevant forms (see appendices 2 and 3). The examiners should ensure that the question papers, adequately packaged and sealed, are submitted to the supervisor at least one hour before the start of the examination.


18.2   Subject only to administrative supervision by the office of the provost/dean/director, the conduct of course examinations shall be the responsibility of the Head of Department. The Head of Department should ensure that examination questions are moderated.


18.3   For each examination there should be a supervisor and invigilators in a ratio of at least one invigilator to 50 students, including both male and female invigilators.


18.4   It is the responsibility of the parent department to appoint supervisors and invigilators. The list should be forwarded to the Head of the Teaching Department not later than one week before the commencement of semester examinations. Students should be seated according to their Department and they should be invigilated by academic staff from their Departments.


18.5   Supervisors should be appointed from the rank of senior lecturer and above and invigilators should be other members of academic staff. Part-time teachers, where necessary, are also regarded as internal examiners.


18.6   Supervisor must identify and check students into the examination hall using the authenticated register of students for the course. The student must be show the invigilator his/her  registration/identity card on entry to every examination. He/she must leave these on the desk throughout the examination for easy inspection by the invigilator.


18.7   All examination scripts used by the students must be endorsed by the supervisor at least 30 minutes after the commencement of the examination.


18.8   The invigilator must ensure that no student removes from the examination venue any paper or other examination material except the printed question papers or other examination material except the printed question papers where it is allowed. Answer booklets are the property of the University and must be in the possession of students.


18.9   During examinations the security must be stepped up especially around examination centres, to ensure the safety of staff and students. The security department is to ensure that no persons not involved in the examinations are allowed to loiter around the hall.


18.10 No unregistered students is allowed to take any examination.


18.11 A student should be in the examination room at least 30 minutes before the start of the examination. A student who is up to 30 minute late shall be admitted, but shall not be given any extra time. A student who arrives more than 30 minutes after the start of the examination shall not be admitted. A student may be allowed to leave the examination room temporarily before the end of the examination but must not:

a.       Do so during the first hour of the examination except in cases of emergency like illness;

b.       Do so unaccompanied Or with his scripts.


18.12 All students must write their name and matriculation number and sign the attendance register within the first hour of the examination.


18.13 All students must write their number (not name) at the appropriate places on the cover and pages of the answer booklet.


18.14 No student shall keep any handbag, briefcase, books, notebooks or paper near him/her during the examination.


19.15 No student shall directly or indirectly give or accept any assistance during the examination, including lending borrowing any material.


18.16 No student shall continue writing when, the end of the allotted time; the invigilator  orders all students to stop writing.


18.17 A student shall avoid noise-making and/or communicating with any other student or with any other person, except with the invigilator if necessary.


18.18 Students who disrupt an examination at any venue will have their examination cancelled and they will be required to re-register for the course.


18.19 At the end of the examination the supervisor/invigilator should ensure that the scripts are checked, properly packaged, and returned along with relevant forms to the chief examiner.


18.20 A member of staff who fails to turn up for invigilator shall lose a monthly examination allowance for each offence and be queried for this act the first time. If this is repeated during any other period of examination the member of staff will lose the monthly examination allowance for each offence and will in addition lose the next promotion and be warned in writing by the vice-chancellor.


18.21 The provost/dean is responsible for reporting to the vice chancellor any defaulting invigilator.


18.22 These examination regulations apply to all students studying for the award of University of Port Harcourt degree, diplomas and certifications, and where appropriate to all staff.


19      RESULTS

19.1   Results should be returned in quandruplicate distributed as follows: a copy to the course lecturer, a copy to the head of Department  and two copies the Dean who signs and returns one copy of the mark sheet to the Department.


19.2   Results must be submitted not later than two months from the end of the examination, if at the end of the third month the result is not submitted, the Dean should report this to the vice-chancellor and the salaries of those involved should be suspended. Deans must ensure that examination results are presented to the senate not later than three months after the end of each examination period.

19.3   A moderator for an examination must have access to the scripts and the course mark sheet must show an itemized distribution of the score.


19.4   Computation of results should be restricted to academic staff.


19.5   examiners should ensure the security of scripts and the scripts should normally be returned to the Head of Department after one year, scripts are not to be disposed of until after five years.


19.6   Faculty officers, heads of departments, and provost/directors should ensure that mark sheets and results are treated as high security documents.



20.1   Results may be changed because of a review or as the result of the discovery of an error or fraudulent change in the recording of either semester or degree results.


20.2   No result/grade approved by the faculty board shall be changed without reference to the faculty board.


20.3   No result/grade approved by senate shall be changed without reference to senate.


20.4   Any application for a change of grade must be made in writing, appropriately routed, giving clearly defined reasons for the change.


20.5   Where the change is suspected to be the result of fraud, it should be investigated at the appropriate level and a recommendation made to senate.



21.1   Students shall be entitled to see their marked examination scripts if they so desire, provided appropriate steps are taken to safeguard the scripts.


21.2   Any student who is aggrieved about the grading of a course examination may petition his/her Head of Department in the first instance. The Head of Department shall refer the petition to the Dean of the Faculty, who shall cause the scripts to be re-assessed and the scores presented to the Faculty Board for determination.


21.3   A student applying for a review of answer scripts shall be required to pay the improved fee to the bursary department before commencement of the review.


21.4   If the appeal results in a significant improvement (i.e. a change in letter grade) on the students original grade, the fee so paid shall be refunded to the student within 30 days from the release of the result. Students whose letter grade is not marked higher lose their money.


21.5   Application for review of answer scripts must be made not later than one month  from the date of publication of results by the faculty.


21.6   The application must be personal, i.e. an appeal by someone for the review of someone else’s script shall not be entertained.


21.7   No group appeal by candidates involved in the examination in question (or other group of persons) shall be entertained.



22.1   Definition of Examination Malpractice

Examination malpractice shall be defined as all forms of cheating which directly or indirectly falsify the ability of the student. These shall include cheating within an examination hall, cheating outside an examination hall, and any involvement in all illegal and unethical examination-related offence, forms of cheating are categorized as follows.

A.      Cheating within an examination hall/room

1.       Copying from one-another/exchanging question/answer sheets.

2.       Bringing in prepared answers, copying from textbooks, notebooks, laboratory specimens or any other instrumental aids smuggled into the examination hall.

3.       Collaboration with an invigilator/lecture where it involves the lecturer providing written/oral answers to a student in the examination hall.

4.       Oral/written, communication between/amongst students.

5.       Bringing in preparation answer written on any part of the body.

6.       Receiving information, whether written or oral, from any person(s) outside an examination hall.

7.      Refusal to stop writing at the end, within half a minute, of the examination.

8.       Impersonation.

9.       Non-submission of answer scripts at the end of an examination.

10.     Illegal removal of answer scripts from the examination hall.


B.      Cheating Outside the Examination Hall/Room

1.       Plagiarism is a form of examination malpractice and should be investigated and punished in the same way as cheating in the examination hall. Plagiarism is the use of another person’s work without appropriate acknowledgement both in the text and in the reference at the end.

2.       Copying laboratory and fieldwork reports and/or term papers of others.

3.       Colluding with a member of staff to obtain, or on his own initiative obtaining, set questions or answer beforehand.

4.       Colluding with a member of staff to modify, or on his/her own initiative modifying students score cards, answer scripts and/or mark sheets.

5.       Colluding with a member of staff in order to submit a new, prepared answer script as a substitute for the original script after an examination.

6.       Writing a project, laboratory and/or field reports on behalf of a student by a member of staff, or any other third party.

7.       Soliciting for help after an examination.

8.       Secretly breaking into a staff office or departmental office in order to obtain question papers, answer scripts or mark sheets or substituting a fresh answer script for the original script.

9.       Refusing to cooperate with the faculty  investigating panel or the senate committee on examination malpractices in the investigation of alleged examination malpractice.


C.      Related Offences

1.       Manipulation of registration form in order to sit for an examination for which the student is not qualified.

2.       Sitting for an examination for which the student is not qualified as a result of manipulation of registration forms.

3.       Colluding with a medical doctor in order to obtain an excused duty/medical certificate on grounds of feigned illness.

4.       Producing a fake medical certificate.

5.       Assault and intimidation of the invigilator within or outside the examination hall.

6.       Attempting to destroy and/or destroying evidence of examination malpractice.

7.       Intimidation/threats to extort sexual/monetary/other favours from students by a member of staff in exchange for grades.

8.       Offering sexual or monetary favours in order to influence grades.



22.2.1         Any unautheorized material found in the possession of a student shall be seized by the invigilator after the student has signed it acknowledging that it was retrieved from him/her. Refusal to sign is tentamount to acceptance of guilt.

22.2.2         Where the student refuses to sign the invigilator should make a clear statement on the answer sheet and sign.


22.2.3         The student shall, however, not be prevented from finishing the examination.


22.2.4         The invigilator shall, immediately after the examination, submit a written report to the head of department conducting the examination.

22.2.5The report shall include all necessary information, following the format given in appendix 4.


22.2.6         The department conducting the examination shall set up a committee/panel to examine the merit of the case.


22.2.7         If the department board feels that a prima facie case has been established, the cases shall be presented to the faculty board which shall appoint a panel to investigate the case and report back to the faculty.


22.2.8         If the faculty is satisfied that a case has been established the case should be reported to the senate committee on examination malpractices (SCEM).


22.2.9         The senate committee on examination malpractice (SCEM) shall investigate the case and report to senate for decision.


22.2   10 the investigation of examination malpractice should take as much time as is necessary to ensure the matter is disposed of in a manner, but it must not go beyond the end of the semester following the one in which the offence was allegedly involved in an examination malpractice shall be allowed to register for courses and take examinations in them. But results of the courses shall not be released by the parent or any other department until investigation has been completed and his/her innocence established by Senate.



23.1   Any student found guilty of examination malpractice after due process should be expelled from the University.

23.2   This information on punishment for examination malpractice should be communicated to all students and their sponsors before the commencement of each session. It should also be pasted on all notice boards throughout the university and should also be contained in each faculty prospectus so as to give it the widest possible publicity.


23.2   The decision should take effect immediately after the publication.


23.4   Members of staff involved in aiding and abetting students in examination malpractice should be made to appear before an investigation panel. If the member of staff is found guilty, the report should be sent to the appropriate disciplinary committee.


23.4   For students involved in an examination malpractice and proven guilty, senate should take the ultimate decision, while for staff, the appropriate disciplinary committee (as specified in the conditions of service) should forward its recommendation to council.


23.5   For students involved in an examination malpractice  and proven guilty, senate should take appropriate disciplinary committee (as specified in the conditions of service) should forward its recommendation to council.



24.1   Secretary societies/cults are anti-social and are banned by the University. Any student proved to belong to a secret will be expelled.